At the recent DjangoCon US conference, Peter Baumgartner presented a talk titled Containerless Django: Deploying without Docker. In the talk Peter described what a zipapp (executable Python zip archive) is and how these could be created using the shiv tool, the aim being to be able to create a single file executable for a complete Python application, including all its Python package dependencies. The only requirement would be that any target platform you copy the executable to, must provide a matching Python runtime.
A question which was asked after the talk was whether it would be possible to use shiv in conjunction with mod_wsgi. My initial thinking was that yes, it should be possible. As it turned out, it wouldn't work as things were, due to how shiv set up the application so it knew where all the Python package dependencies were unpacked when the executable was run. With a bit of black magic though, I was able to get mod_wsgi to work. This post is to highlight what what can be done in case you want to try it out for yourself.
Goals of zipapp and shiv
The goal of the zipapp executable format is to allow a Python application, along with all its Python package dependencies, to be bundled up as a single executable file. The zipapp format and support for it has been available since Python 2.6, but probably isn't that widely known about. The format got additional support in Python 3.5 via PEP 441. It still though had limitations, including not being able to be used for Python packages with C extensions.
The shiv tool for creating zipapp executables, works around this and other issues by intercepting the entry point for the zipapp executable and unpacking files from the executable into the file system before actually running the bundled application.
As an example of what you can do, consider the certbot tool for managing creation of certificates using Let's Encrypt.
To install certbot is easy enough and can be done with pip. The problem is, that in addition to its own code, it also depends on a number of other Python packages. Best practice would be to install certbot and those packages into their own Python virtual environment. You could do this yourself, or you could use pipsi. Neither of these makes it easy to then copy the application to another host. This is where shiv can come into play.
For this case of certbot, to create a single executable file for certbot, you can run shiv as:
$ shiv certbot -o certbot.pyz -c certbot
The result is a single
certbot.pyz file, which you can run like any other executable.
$ ./certbot.pyz --help - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - certbot [SUBCOMMAND] [options] [-d DOMAIN] [-d DOMAIN] ... Certbot can obtain and install HTTPS/TLS/SSL certificates. By default, it will attempt to use a webserver both for obtaining and installing the certificate. The most common SUBCOMMANDS and flags are ...
Being a single file, which includes both the code for certbot itself, and all the Python packages it depends on, it is easy to copy the file to another host. The only requirements are that it has the same version of Python installed, and the target host is the same architecture if Python packages with C extensions are used.
Trying shiv with mod_wsgi
Trying this with
mod_wsgi-express things weren't quite as successful. The building of the executable file ran okay:
$ shiv 'mod_wsgi==4.6.4' -o mod_wsgi-express.pyz -c mod_wsgi-express
$ ./mod_wsgi-express.pyz start-server --log-to-terminal
yielded the error:
File "/var/tmp/mod_wsgi-localhost:8000:501/handler.wsgi", line 7, in import mod_wsgi.server ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'mod_wsgi.server'; 'mod_wsgi' is not a package
This fails because when
mod_wsgi-express start-server is run, it is actually performing a fork/exec of the Apache httpd server, but the directory shiv has created holding all the required Python packages, isn't known of by the Apache mod_wsgi module when it is in turn loaded. It therefore cannot find the Python module called
mod_wsgi which the
handler.wsgi file for
The specific reason this is the case, is because the shiv bootstrap code executed when the executable file is run, only adjusts
sys.path of the current process so that the bundled Python packages can be found. It does not set the
PYTHONPATH environment such that it would be inherited by subprocesses. The result is that the directory is only known of by that process alone, or any direct forks. It will not be known of by any sub process created by executing a standalone program such as the Apache httpd server.
A bit of black magic
Unfortunately, it doesn't seem that the shiv bootstrap code leaves any global state variables in a readily accessible place, which can be used to determine whether shiv was used, and what the name of the directory with the required Python packages are. The only place a variable exists with the name of the directory we want, is in a local stack frame from a prior function call.
Getting access to the directory therefore relies on a bit of black magic.
site_packages =  if '_bootstrap' in sys.modules: bootstrap = sys.modules['_bootstrap'] if 'bootstrap' in dir(bootstrap): frame = inspect.currentframe() while frame is not None: code = frame.f_code if (code and code.co_filename == bootstrap.__file__ and code.co_name == 'bootstrap' and 'site_packages' in frame.f_locals): site_packages.append(str(frame.f_locals['site_packages'])) break frame = frame.f_back
This makes a guess that shiv was used by looking to see if the
_bootstrap module had been imported and that it contained a
bootstrap() function. If it was, we look back through the function stack looking for that function and extract the value of the
site_packages variable from the locals of that function.
Knowing that shiv was used, and what the directory with the required Python packages was, we can use it in the generated configuration for Apache/mod_wsgi, so the embedded Python interpreter it runs, can find them.
Sure this is a hack, but unless shiv provides a better way of knowing when it is being run and what the directory with the Python packages was, we don't have much choice. Good thing at least is you don't have to care, as this fiddle is hidden away in
mod_wsgi-express and you just need to use the right version of the
mod_wsgi package, which is version 4.6.5 or newer.
$ shiv 'mod_wsgi==4.6.5' -o mod_wsgi-express.pyz -c mod_wsgi-express
Apache httpd server
When you use shiv to create the executable zipapp file, the target host must still have Python installed as well. This is because it is only the application code and Python packages it requires that are bundled in the executable file. The Python interpreter itself is not included.
In the case of
mod_wsgi-express, we also need the Apache httpd server. With the above command, both the host where the executable is built and the target host must have it installed, and in the same location.
Unlike with the Python interpreter, there is a way around this for the Apache httpd server, and it can instead be bundled in the executable as well. This is by virtue of a little known companion package for
mod_wsgi-httpd. Like with
mod_wsgi-httpd package exists on PyPi and can be installed using
pip. When installed, it will build the Apache httpd server from source code. When
mod_wsgi is then subsequently installed, it will use it instead.
$ shiv 'mod_wsgi-httpd==2.4.35.*' 'mod_wsgi==4.6.5' -o mod_wsgi-express.pyz -c mod_wsgi-express
We now have the Apache httpd server and
mod_wsgi-express bundled in the one executable file. This can be copied to another host and the Apache httpd server doesn't need to be installed separately on either host.
Bundling your application
The example above for
mod_wsgi-express is only bundling it and the Apache httpd server, it isn't including your application. The shiv documentation provides a few examples of bundling your application code.
If you do that, and it is a Django application, you will want to use the Django management command integration for
mod_wsgi-express. You can then setup the shiv entrypoint to run the
runmodwsgi Django management command.
For other WSGI applications, you can have the shiv entrypoint import
mod_wsgi.server and call the
start() function within that module, passing as a list the same options as you would pass to
If want more details on this, for now would suggest posting on the mod_wsgi mailing list and I can provide additional information.